Below are research articles by JUST Capital exploring the connection with just corporate behavior and investor returns.
- What Drivers of Corporate Responsibility Generate Alpha?: This article examines the investment risk and return characteristics of JUST Capital-ranked stocks, segmented by their JUST scores. The motivation for this study is that the transmission channel(s) for the outperformance of the JUST indexes we found in previous research is not well understood. An original contribution of this article is to not only segment stocks using an overall ESG score, but to also use sub-scores to facilitate a more fine-grained understanding of the aspects of ESG performance that are most impactful to investors, as measured by return and risk metrics. Analysis of the individual elements composing the overall JUST score shows that Leadership & Ethics, as well as Worker Treatment drivers, may provide significant sources of risk mitigation and return enhancement.
- JUST Companies Exhibit Lower Investment Risk: In this report, we examine whether companies that behave more justly are also more resilient to market and earnings risks. We found significant evidence that stocks in the top quintile of JUST scores carry less investment risk than those with lower JUST scores. For instance, top-quintile ranked JUST companies have 18%-22% lower volatility, 6% lower beta, 5% shallower drawdowns, near-half the quarterly earnings-per-share volatility, and 4.5% higher ROIC than bottom-quintile companies. These findings are consistent, though more pronounced in magnitude, than other research from the Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) investment community.
- Outperformance of JUST Investable Equity Indexes: Equity indexes based on the leaders of JUST Capital’s 2016 rankings outperform the Russell 1000 index in both absolute and risk-adjusted terms over three to ten years. The indexes are based on the JUST 100 constituents, as well as on the top 50% ranked companies by industry. The 1–4 percentage-point annual outperformance holds over ten years and is robust to three different stock weighting schemes. The indexes have higher Sharpe ratios, similar or better downside risk characteristics, and moderate tracking risk versus the Russell 1000.
- JUSTness Undervalued: The Market Valuation of JUST Companies: We studied the historic and current equity market valuation of the winners of JUST Capital’s 2016 rankings, the JUST 100. Based on more than ten years of average forward price-to-earnings, price-to-book, and forward enterprise value-to-EBITDA ratios, the JUST 100 trade at a small valuation discount to their industry peers. This discount persists as of January 2017. Despite their leading performance on the environmental, social, and governance issues that matter most to the American public — as well as shareholder returns — investors don’t systematically need to pay a valuation premium to own a diversified portfolio of JUST companies. This suggests the market may be undervaluing these increasingly-critical corporate attributes.
- Does company size drive JUST Capital’s ranking?: We studied the company size of the winners of JUST Capital’s 2016 rankings, the JUST 100. In ranking the JUST 100 against their industry peers on revenue, market capitalization, and the number of employees, we found that contrary to many investor’s perceptions, it isn’t only the very largest companies that can “afford” to behave justly. While there is moderate size bias toward larger companies — the JUST 100 on average rank on the 66th percentile of size based on the three measures — the winners in a number of industries were actually below median size. The JUST 100 winners in five out of thirty-two industries (banks, capital markets, energy equipment, healthcare equipment, and commercial services) were smaller than their median industry peers. Details by industry and metric can be found in the full presentation.
- Happy Together: Capital and Labor at JUST Companies: The JUST 100 is the inaugural list of America’s most just companies recently released by JUST Capital. Using the Russell 1000 index of the largest publicly-traded corporations in America as its starting point, these 100 companies constitute the three highest-ranked companies within each of 32 industries, based on JUST Capital’s methodology, as well as the four highest-ranked fourth-place finishers. The JUST rankings reflect the preferences of the American public and place significant emphasis on worker pay & benefits, worker treatment, and leadership & ethics, among other important components. The full rankings and component list can be found on the JUST Capital site.